In this tutorial, you'll learn will learn how to use with clause
PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7). Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database.
PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces.
PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language, which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard.
The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.
PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables.
PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages, but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor, CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler  and SwisSQL.
The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite.
PL/SQL Program Unit
A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database.
The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label.
Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are:
Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation.
Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
you are very cool but did you notice your playlist order? do you want really help others? then first change the playlist order. if possible provide tables structures data and then queries for practice (which you already taught in videos) really helpful to us
Cele mai bune oferte si promotii din catalogul Dedeman, valabile de pe 07.12.2017 pana pe 31.12.2017. Reduceri si promotii la: gresie si faianta, produse si unelte pentru gradina, acoperisuri, constructii, termice, scule de mana si electrice, … [Read more. ]
Catalog Hornbach 5 decembrie – 31 decembrie 2017.
Descoperiti cele mai bune promotii din catalogul de oferte Hornbach, valabile de pe 05.12.2017 pana pe 31.12.2017. Cele mai bune reduceri la: aparat antiinsecte cu LED, boiler electric, vopsea "Meister Polar Weiss", lazura pentru lemn, Pattfield … [Read more. ]
Catalog Praktiker 22 Noiembrie – 27 Decembrie 2017.
Nu ratati cele mai bune oferte si promotii alimentare din catalogul Praktiker, valabile de pe 22.11.2017 pana pe 27.12.2017. Cautati cele mai bune preturi la: suport umbrela, cutie frigorifica, cort Ontario, balansoar 3 locuri, bicicleta strada, … [Read more. ]
Economisiti cu cele mai recente promotii din catalogul de oferte Brico Depôt, valabile de pe 15.11.2017 pana pe 24.12.2017. Nu pierdeti cele mai bune preturi la: ventilatoare, aparate de aer conditionat, tevi si conectica cupru, radiatoare, boilere, … [Read more. ]
Catalog Hornbach 7 noiembrie – 4 decembrie 2017.
Descoperiti cele mai bune promotii din catalogul de oferte Hornbach, valabile de pe 07.11.2017 pana pe 04.12.2017. Cele mai bune reduceri la: aparat antiinsecte cu LED, boiler electric, vopsea "Meister Polar Weiss", lazura pentru lemn, Pattfield … [Read more. ]
Bricolajul a ajuns in Romania in urma cu aproximativ 10 ani, insa in Statele Unite si in statele occidentale acest concept este mai vechi, si isi are originile la inceputul anilor ’50. Bricolajul se refera la capacitatea oamenilor de a crea sau repara diverse obiecte fara a apela la ajutor specializat.
Primul catalog de bricolaj pentru renovarea locuintei a aparut in 1968. Acesta a nascut conceptul de bricolaj care sta la baza lanturilor de magazine din zilele noastre. De la covoare si perdele, pana la mobilier si prefabricate, bricolajul se refera la tot ce inseamna renovarea unei locuinte in aceasta acceptiune.
Pe orlo.ro gasesti toate cataloagele de bricolaj, de la cei mai importanti comercianti. Catalog Dedeman, Catalog Praktiker, Catalog Baumax, Catalog Bricostore, Catalog Ambient si altii.
In Romania retelele de magazine pentru bricolaj sau extins rapid, cel mai important comerciant din acest segment este Dedeman, care a pornit din orasul Bacau si a ajuns sa detina magazine in cele mai importante orase din tara.